Archaeological excavation of a presumed
Buddhist building and of a Sogdian and karakhanid citadel
The site of Novopokrovka II lies at the eastern edge of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, in the valley of the Chu River. Its surface is about 14'000 m2. The site was already preliminary explored by P.N. Kozhemjako in 1953.1 He noted two cultural strata and dated the lower one into the 8 th /9 th century A.D., the upper one between the 10 th and 12 th century A.D. In 1965 and 1966 several smaller Buddhist objects were found near the site, among them a stone relief in the Gandhara style, the head of a Buddha made out of clay as well as bronze figures.2 Based on these findings one can assume that Novopokrovka II consists of a Buddhist building, possibly a monastery.
The Evening paper of Bishkek, September 27 th 2004, excerpts:
The excavation's leader Philip Rott, a lecturer at the Russian-Kyrgyz Slavic University Philip Rott comments as follows: Kyrgyzstan is a Klondike for archaeologists. In the valley of the Chu [where, among else, Bishkek and Novopokrovka are located] more than twenty medieval cities and more than fifty settlements are known. But only the ruins of three to four cities remain; the others were changed into waste deposits, cemeteries or even military compounds. Formerly, an art centre was built on Novopokrovka, but the floor quickly started to sink. Therefore it was torn down. We have now started to work there. We are supported by the Swiss Society for the Exploration of EurAsia. Apart from the chums , the archaeologists found in the south-eastern part of the hill strong fortifications. New and interesting discoveries are expected in the future."
Continuation of the project
During the winter 2004/05, the finds like ten cases of ceramics, coins and the likely two Sogdian inscriptions will be further analyzed. The excavation of the fortification and of the economic complex outside the walls will continue in 2005.
2 Staviskij B. J.: Sud'by buddhisma v Srednei Asii. Moskva 1998. p. 130ff.
Excavation 2005: Brief Report
The excavation resumed in August/September 2005. The work continued at the south-eastern city wall where the excavation started in 2004. In rooms 1 and 4 (see plan) the lower strata were excavated, which belong to the Karakhanid period, 11 th century A.D. In room 4 a large clay vessel was found; a second large clay oven in room 9; the latter was surely a kitchen.
Excavations were continued around the corner tower found in 2004, which belongs to an older horizon and which was probably destroyed prior to the construction of the Karakhanid complex. No traces of fire were found. Two rubbish pits were found with shards. The bottom of the ground has not yet been reached.The north-western part of the excavation revealed an older than Karakhanid horizon, pottery vessels with more archaic shapes and two Turkish coins with Sogdian inscriptions. Such coins were used as off the 8 th till the 11 th century AD. The coins are presently analyzed. In this section at least two rooms (10, 11) were identified.
The archaeological fieldwork will be resumed in early autumn 2006.
Valery Kolchenko. Graduate in history
PD. Dr. Dr. Wassilios Klein
In the earlier, pre- Karakhanid complex within the city wall the excavation of rooms 10-12 was continued. The stratigraphic situation in rooms 11 and 12 is the same. The buried site was covered with a thick layer of clay in the lower parts of the rooms, which means that a significant time span existed between this complex, most likely from the Sogdian period, and the complex that was uncovered outside the city wall, the „ Karakhanid complex“. (Photo 2). Between the epoch of the „Sogdian“ settlement and the Karakhanid complex the location was therefore presumably uninhabited.
South of Room 10, Room 11 was uncovered. This room was set in the corner of the city wall, so that the eastern and southern walls are parts of the city walls. In 2006, the post-Sogdian intermediate layer in this room was first removed. Room 12 is north of Room 11. (Photo 3).
In the covering rubble of the three rooms and in the ground layer, pottery was found that in principle has different forms from that in the „ Karakhanid complex“(Photo 4). But with the absence of additional coins in Room 11 (in the year 2005, two coins dating from the Turkish period with Sogdian inscriptions were found there) or of other datable artifacts, as yet no accurate dating of this complex is possible. By relative chronology, and judging from the characteristics of the pottery, it is classified as belonging to the so-called „Sogdian“ Phase of the Culture of the Chu Valley.
West of the rooms described above in the upper layer, partially sunk into the intermediate layer, further city structures were uncovered. One of these rooms was partially excavated. Its walls (north and east) were built with brick. The relative chronology and the characteristics of the pottery indicate that this structure is synchronic with the „Karakhanid complex“. This
group of rooms as well was built only after the earlier „Sogdian“ settlement had been left by its inhabitants. The architectonic relationship between these rooms and the complex outside the city wall is not yet clarified.
In the rooms of the „ Karakhanid “ complex outside the city wall, further digging (Photo 5) and several surveys (drill-holes) were done to ascertain, whether earlier building periods were present here as well. The result is approximately the same in all cases – there are no building structures beneath the Karakhanid floors, that were excavated in 2004-2005. The excavated rooms of the complex were erected on the rubble outside the city wall.
In the eastern part of the section, another building structure was found (Photo 6), of which the total excavation was impossible in 2006. It is a brick wall, placed diagonally to the city wall. Found material in this structure is minor; it must be classified as belonging to the „Karakhanid“ period.
During the excavation, ceramic complexes were found that came predominantly from the rubbish pits. Among the metal findings several bronze buckles can be recognized. In the upper layer of the settlement, an important Fals, i.e. a coin from the Karakhanid period, was found of a type (Uzgend, 421), which was unknown until today. This is why this finding is of special importance for numismatics, a relevant publication is in preparation.
Finally, the large concrete slab from the 1950's, which covered the city center and rendered any archaeological work in this area impossible, was removed with the help of a bulldozer. (Photo 7)
Plan for 2007Since the Karakhanid structures outside and along the city wall were extensively explored and sufficient Karakhanid material was obtained, the archaeological work from 2007 on will clearly be concentrated in the direction of the city center. Work in the city center is now possible, thanks to the removal of the concrete slab.
Philipp Rott, Excavation Leader
The archeological operations during the excavation campaign of 2007 (Object „Excavation 1“) were concentrated on the early layers of the Karachanidi complex outside the city wall, as these related to the original fortification structures, and partial aspects of the fortification had not yet been finally clarified. This measure was indicated, because the excavation area was to be filled in again.
As a result, it can be established for the excavation season of 2007 that the level between the living- and economic complex outside the city walls and the area of excavation showed fill (a filling-in of a cavity with foreign materials) that can be considered a consequence of the destruction of the city wall and the fortification buildings.
This fill had been covered with a layer of stone that marks a certain event in the life of the settlement. This hard layer of varied massiveness consists of a combination of fine clay, river pebbles, small bone splinters and ceramic fragments. It can be assumed that this mixture resulted from an inflow of water. Whether this can be attributed to an occurrence of flooding cannot yet be determined at the present state of evaluations. Photo 1 and 2 show the stratigraphic situation under the layer of stone.
Under the fill layer the surface of the platform is recognizable as well. Up to now, it could not be clarified, whether the settlement had been built on an artificially-constructed (man-made) clay platform, or whether the surface of the platform represents a natural terrace. The analysis of a removed sample is yet to be completed.
The examination of the fill layer produced important results for the understanding of the existence of the settlement during the Karachanidic period.Above all, it was the numerous waste pits (more than 30!) and their stratigraphic situation that led to the following conclusions. The excavated area was used as waste dump at the beginning of the second settlement phase. The waste pits form rows, as recognizable on the plan, which points to a regular structure (planned installations). The waste pits have various forms, sizes and fillings. Several of them had been dug into the clay platform, others intersect, as can be seen on Photo 3.
An interesting fact can be pointed out. In many waste pits, skeletons of dogs were found in complete anatomical order. A cult connection is not established. On Photo 4 an example of this can be seen.
In one of the pits, a piece of a water pipe (Kubur) was found. (Photo 5).
During the excavation campaign of 2007, the settlement was topographically completely documented.For the excavation campaign of 2008, a continuation of the archaeological work is planned with the goal of examining the relationship between the two settlement phases. The research studies will be concentrated on the Sogdian layer. For this purpose, the data and materials obtained in 2007 will provide a solid foundation.
Report about the Excavations at Novopokrovka II 2008During the excavation campaign of 2008, primary attention was devoted to further investigations of the rooms that were uncovered in 2007 within the city wall, belonging to the earlier building level I (the so-called Sogdian Phase). In addition, three new areas (1-3), i. e., squares (5 x 5 m) were laid out, of which predominantly the upper layers were examined here.
The examination of the rooms that are situated on the east side along the city wall, resulted in the partial uncovering of Room 10. The function of this room at the corner of the city wall remained as yet unclear, so that further excavations will be necessary.
In Room 12, only partially excavated as well, a sunken pit (no.24) was discovered, which contained a ceramic complex, unique to the Cu-valley. Besides early vessel shapes – big chums and vessels that functioned as kettles - there is also a recognizable goblet, which without a doubt represents a unique example for this region. Also rare is the fragment of a so-called smoke vessel with a zigzag-formed rim.
The coin discoveries in 2005, and the relative chronological facts allow the building level (Rooms 10 – 12) to be dated into the 8 th century.
It is the task of the next excavation campaign to completely uncover the above-named rooms and to determine their functions.
In areas 1 – 3, predominantly the upper layers were uncovered, which were intersected by numerous pits, whereby the culture layer was heavily damaged. It is problematic, moreover, that the upper layers were removed, and/or destroyed during the building of the culture house in the 1950s, and therefore, it remains unclear, from where or from which level the refuse pits were dug.
The stratigraphic situation is as follows: under the modern layer is a layer that was intersected by later refuse pits. The material from the pits reveals neither a chronological nor a cultural sequence, since it is not very representative.
Under this layer is building level IIa, which can be correlated with the Karachanid phase. The building structures here represent the rooms, the functions of which are unclear. Remnants of a bronze foundry found within them, as well as their provisional character, indicate that they might have been work shops.
The rooms, or more specifically their floors, cover the massive layer, which marks the deterioration of the settlement. It has an heterogeneous structure. In this layer, clay shards and animal bones are found. Noticeable here is a large number of fragments of so-called stands, which are roughly made.
This layer is intersected with refuse pits as well, which further intersect the lower layers. The refuse pits were dug from different levels, i.e. under layers, and contain ceramics and animal bones.
Underneath, building structures were uncovered, which cover over the fillings of rooms from the so-called Sogdian building level (Level I). They represent Level Ib. The poor condition of these structures does not allow for proposals of reconstruction. Level Ib was only partially excavated during the Campaign of 2008.
The excavations of 2008 have shown that between Building Level I, i.e., Ib and II, there was a period of deterioration. In terms of stratigraphy, this period corresponds with the time between the 8 th and 10 th centuries. Historically, this period can be correlated with the invasion of the Karluks. Whether this really had a great effect on the development of city culture in the region is still debatable and can only be answered, when a further number of settlements is excavated over a large area. What led to the deterioration in the settlement territory of Novopokrovka II in this time frame, or what was responsible for it, is still unclear.
Furthermore, the question remains, which function the settlement had originally. To examine the existing chronological observations, i.e., to ascertain the original function of the settlement, as well as to answer further questions about the development of the settlement, it was decided to open two new areas (squares) in the central part of the settlement during the campaign of 2009.
To the north, a further room (Room 16), i.e. its southern wall, was
uncovered. Its correlation to Rooms 13-14 is still unclear. In the deterioration
layer of this area, a row of refuse pits was uncovered that reaches
down to the lower layers. Out of Refuse Pit 24/2008, which was completely
uncovered in 2009, a number of heavily corroded coins of the Tyrgesh-type
(most of the coins have a diameter of up to 1 cm) were brought out.
(Fig. 4) In addition to the coins, remnants of bronze casting (wire,
etc.) were found in this pit. Almost all of the refuse pits that can
be correlated with the deterioration layer, contain fragments of ceramics
and animal bones.
The north wall of this room was built of bricks. Additional walls belong
to the beginning period of this complex, i.e. to the earlier horizon
on this settlement, therefore to the 6th-7th cent. A.D. They were built
of pachsa. Along the south and west walls, there are sufas. These sufas
indicate they functioned as residences, which could have changed, however,
in the course of time. It was discovered that they were built after
a certain model. This concerns a special technique, in which the front
wall consists of clay bricks that are laid cross-wise.The maximum height
of the sufas is 38 cm.
In the north wall of the room is a passage to the north that leads
along the eastern wall. To the west, this room connects with Room 16a,
which is only marked by a passage. This passage also runs along the
southern wall. The entire concept, i.e. function of this room remains
unclear, not least because of its destruction by later refuse pits.
This question can therefore only be solved, after Room 16, which is
situated west of it, is excavated.
In square 1d, two building periods were identified. Here we are dealing
with the upper structures, severely damaged by a house of culture built
in the 1950s, the correlations of which have remained unclear. One can
only speak of a wall, built of clay bricks and running in a north-south
direction with a small deviation. The height of this wall is 10 cm,
the thickness – 12 cm. The length of the bricks is 40 cm. Because
of this wall, one can speak of two rooms, Room 1 and 2. Additional constructions
that could be connected to this wall, were not determined.
Included in the lower building period (second building period) are additional structures: a room which functioned as a kitchen (Room 3). It contains a tandoor and a floor oven with an ash reservoir, the upper parts of which were destroyed through later building work, so that only their lower parts were found intact. The tandoor has a diameter of 64 cm, its height is 30 cm. In the fill of the tandoor, remains of a water jug were found.
The floor oven has an opening towards the west. The measurements: north-south
– 27 cm, heigth – 20 cm. North of the oven is a reservoir,
which was used for ash. A similar kitchen room was discovered in 2004
near Room 9.
In Square 1a, a row of refuse pits was uncovered, which had been deepened
by the upper layer. Additional work, i.e. examinations of lower layers
on this level are planned for 2010.
A large room (Room 12), belonging to the original period of the complex
within the city walls, i.e. the earlier horizon, was completely uncovered.
The function of this room is not yet totally clear, since it is not
known, how this room can be correlated with others next to it. To clarify
this is one of the goals for Season 2010. Through the excavation of
a number of additional rooms (Rooms 10, 11) along the eastern city wall,
it will be made clear, how this important area, which was connected
to the fortification, can be viewed. Unique ist the ceramic complex
that stems from this horizon. For the Chu-Valley, this may be the richest,
closed complex containing forms that indicate relatively distinct relationships
with the Syr-Darya region. In Sogd, the ceramic forms obtained here
do not find any clear parallels. Practically for the first time with
regard to the Chu-Valley, we can thus speak of an earlier building technique.
Scientific publications will follow. In the series „Materials
and Investigations in the Archaeology of Kyrgyzstan) (starting in 2010),
the publication of yearly excavation reports is planned.
The archaeological report on the excavation
of 2010 in Novopokrovka II
The works in the square 3 focused on the room 19/19c found 2009. The size of this room: 3,7 x 2,7 m. The northern wall of this room is built from the mud bricks (50-52 x 22-24 x 8-9 cm). The surface of this wall has a plaster. The eastern wall is adjacent this room 12. It was found that the maximal thickness of this wall is 75 cm. The western wall was extremely destroyed by the latest rubbish pit 08-19. Only the northern part of this wall is remained. Its maximal thickness is 60 cM.
This room 19c has sufas along three walls: northern, southern and eastern. Their size: (1,10, 1,05 and 0,57 m). The height is 20 cm. In the centre of this room is found a square podium, which height is also 20 cm. Its base size: 80 x 90 cm. Research of all these sufas has shown that they all are monolith and built from pachsa.
The floor was covered with clay plaster.
The only entrance to this room was found; it is located in the eastern wall and connects this room with room 12. Its maximal 1,1 m.
The area to the west of the western wall of rooms 19c and 19d was called as room 20. In the south-eastern corner of this room the rubbish pit 10-7 was found. It was dropped from the level c. Its construction destroyed the southern and eastern walls of the room. In 2010 it was partly excavated. Within the content of filing were some fragments of ceramics and pieces of mud bricks.
Unfortunately, most part of these rubbish pits as well as the filling
of the excavated rooms did not contain interesting finds.
Philipp Rott, 15 January 2011
Report on excavations at Novopokrovka II in 2011
Philipp Rott, Valery Kolchenko
The archaeological works were carried out in 2011 on the surfaces I and II.
On the surface I (south-eastern part of the hill) Quadrant I was further deepened.
Here is something deeper, a further wall was discovered, it belongs to the room 24, that is located underneath the level of the room 23. This room was excavated down to the floor. Along the southern wall, which is also the settlement wall and the eastern wall the Sufas were exposed, their height is about 20 cm and the width is 1,2 m. Their surface and also of the floor of this room is relatively smooth. The western wall of this room is not found, it must be outside the area.
Photo 5. A Türgesh coin and other small finds from Room 24.
The filling of the spaces between the bottoms of the rooms 23 and 24 includes the ashlayers. In the southern area of the room a block of unfired bricks was found. It lies approximately horizontally with a small inclination to the north and was followed on 2 meters. The position of the bricks in the block is reminiscent of an arch but it lacks any trace of curvature. The disassembly of this block will continue in 2012, which provides more information.
Photo 6. Room 24. Block of unfired brick.
There were also rooms 10 and 11 investigated further (voluntary work for documentation), that belong to an earlier horizon at the settlement.
On the surface II in 2010 interrupted the work continued. Three quadrants, which were moved here, were combined into one large area, which currently amounts to 10 x 10 meters. In 2011, on the whole surface the upper destructive layers were removed. Underlying layers were examined. Several walls were found here.
Foto 7. Overall view of the surface II.
Metrological data on the rubbish pits
In 2012, the works will be focused on the surface II, where the goal is to investigate the lower strata of the settlement. Parallel smaller works must be carried out on some structures of the surface I, which have remained unexplored.
Report on the archaeological excavation on Novopokrovka II in Kyrgyzstan in 2012
Valery Kol’chenko, Philipp Rott
The focus of the works of 2012 (18.06.-20.07.) was concentrated on the Excavation II in the centre of the settlement, so on the northern and eastern quadrants of this area (Pic. 1).
In the northern part of Excavation II under the destructive modern layer the walls of some rooms of the first building period (horizon I, so called kharachanid time, 10-12 centuries) building period I (the date is still related) were found (rooms 6-8/8а) with some restructuring (building period II, the data is still related). The rooms were on the line North-South. Their walls are extremely destroyed. It could be found that they were built from one line of mud bricks. The floors of all these rooms were partly disturbed with the rubbish pits, which went from different levels. Such situation is typical for this time (10 century?, it is also related) on this settlement. The same picture we could see at the Excavation I (Pic. 2).
In the year 2012 13 rubbish pits at the area of the Excavation II were found. Almost all of them were completely excavated. They were filled with organic materials, including animal bones, fragments of ceramics, including some whole ceramic vessels, coming for example from the rubbish pit 12 (Pic. 3), slag and fragments of building materials: mud and unfired bricks. In the rubbish pit 2/2012 an unidentified bronze coin was found.
The eastern area of the Excavation II was seriously destroyed by the modern channel, made during the building activity at the territory of the settlement in the 1960-es (Pic. 5). See plan. The room 5 was excavated here. It has two levels of floor. In general it correlates with the level of rooms 6-8/8а. The walls of this room were also extremely destroyed, so only a western wall of this room and a sufa of the nothern one, which was destroyed by the modern channel, are remaining. The both floors of this room are of good quality. Under the surface of the sufa was a rubbish pit 9 found.
The works at the Excavation I were also continued (early stage of settlement). Here the rooms 10-11 (10b) were completely, and room 26 was partly, excavated.
Pic. 7. The common veiw of Excavation I. Rooms 10, 11, 24
The structure of the wall between the rooms 10 and 11 was completely researched. It was built of the yellowish mud bricks and it was built from the late level. So it was originally (very beginning of the settlement) one big room 10-b, which was later separated with this wall into two smaller ones 10-11. The original connection between this big room 10-b and room 26 went direct to the corridor, which went along the southern wall. This connection was later walled up (Pic. 8).
Pic. 8. The corridor between rooms 10-b and 26 4
In the room 24-b, which was excavated 2011, a sufa along the eastern wall was dismantled. Under ist surface two Chums in situ were found. They were originally droped from the level of this room (Pic. 9-10).
The room 26 was mostly (apart fron the western part) excavated (Pic. 11-12). Nevertheles many aspects of ist building history need to be researched more detailed, first of all the very first stage of building history of this room. Here the destroyed sufa along the southern wall (in the south-western corner) and the massive wall North-South built from the level of floor were found.
The building history of this corner part of the settlement looks as following: at the very first stage of developmant of the settlement it was a big room (10-b), which was correlating through the corridor, which went along the southern wall (at the same time the wall of the settlement), with a big room 26. Later this big room 10-b was separated into two rooms 10 and 11.
Report on the archaeological Excavation at the settlement Novopokrovka II 2013
(V. A. Kolchenko, Ph. G. Rott)
The archaeological works at the Settlement Novopokrovka II were done from 12th September to 10th October. They were focused on the Excavation II in the centre of the settlement 1.
Directly under the level of the rooms 6-8, which were excavated 2012 in the northern part of Excavation II, were found a series of rooms, which belong to the earlier building period of the same top horizon (horizon I). All of them are oriented on the line North-East (Photo 1).
Photo 3. Rooms 12, 13, 17. View from the West.
The nominal room 12a is located to the east of room 12. Its filling: predominantly ash and greenish organic layers. In the filling of this room a bronze coin of turgesh type and a piece of clay vessel with a stamp in the form of an anthropomorphic figure was found. This figure (Photo 4) has possibly Buddhist iconography. Just some parallels are known (Materily i issledovanija po archeologii SSSR, 1950, 98, 120, 133, Tab. LX, 1, 2.)
Photo 4. Piece of a ceramic vessel found in the room 12 a.
To the east of room 12a is room 15 located. Only a part of this room excavated. The eastern wall, of this room has a complicated structure. Its top part is extremely eroded from rain water. The wall was built of two blocks. Bricks of western block are of good quality, dark-brown colour, with grout of swampy grey colour. The size of the bricks: 42 х 24 х 10 cm. The thickness in the base ca. 55 cm. This wall was integrated into the top part of wall of lower period. Between both of them is a thin layer which includes ash. Another synchronous wall was built to it from the East. The building technique of both walls is the same. Both of
them are built on the early one, so from another building period, which line was followed in the bottom of rubbish pit 2012 (Photo 5).
Photo 5. Structure of the wall between rooms 15 and 16.
In the filling of this room a miniature ceramic vessel in fragments and a piece of slag found.
Photo 6. Rooms 15, 16. View from the West.Room 16.The eastern wall of this room is built from bricks of black-brown colour with grout of light-brown colour. Its max. thickness is ca. 45 cm, max. height in the eastern part is ca. 50 cm. The floor of the room is of good quality and has some slope to the west.
The eastern wall is covered with an avalanche of unfired bricks. It looks like it fell during the first demolition with some removal of material to the east. In the filling of this
room was a handle of a ceramic cup, in the eastern part of the room were massive incrustations, pieces of fired clay and pieces of tandyr walls documented.
Photo 7. Room 16. a view from the East. A sufa of this room destroyed by the rubbish pitsRoom 17 is oriented on the line North-South and is a sort of a passage. Its floor hat a significant slope to the west. Its eastern wall is built of unfired bricks of dark-brown colour with grey grout. This wall was not fully researched in 2013. In its northern area it is extremely destroyed by rubbish pit 12/2013. The northern and southern walls were not found.
Rubbish pit 13/2013 is irregular, of truncated cone form. It goes from the level which corresponds to the level of room 12. It is located to south from the rubbish pit 10/2013. It has a cove from the walls to the bottom. The filling: soft clayish ground with ash inclusions. In the filling were found some ceramic fragments und animal bones, and also pieces of unburned bricks of brown colour of very good quality, in the dough there are inclusions of sand and straw.
Rubbish pit 14/2013 is located to the south-west from the rubbish pit 13/2013. The filling: soft clayish ground with significant ash inclusions.
Photo 8. Room 18, 19.
In the excavation II were found some rubbish pits, which go from the different levels. Here the rubbish pits also extremely destroyed the strata – the same situation what we saw at the excavation I. We can even say that they destroyed whole rooms.
Photo 9. The rubbish pit 11/2013.
Rubbish pit 12/2013 is regular, of cone form, has a cove from the walls to the bottom. Diameter of its mouth is 1,4 m. The filling: in the top part – hart clayish ground, with organic inclusions of the dark green colour, in the bottom part relatively soft clayish ground. On the floor was a layer of digested millet grain. In the filling in the southern bottom part of the pit was found a series of different vessels, incl. a cover, ewer etc. Also here were found whole and fragmented fired bricks, the size of whole one: 27 х 15 х 3,5 cm, and also a iron trilobite pike.
Photo 10. Rubbish pit 12/2013. Ceramic vessels in the southern bottom part.
Rubbish pit 13/2013 is irregular, of truncated cone form. It goes from the level which corresponds to the level of room 12. It is located to south from the rubbish pit 10/2013. It has a cove from the walls to the bottom. The filling: soft clayish ground with ash inclusions. In the filling were found some ceramic fragments und animal bones, and also pieces of unfired bricks of brown colour of very good quality, in the dough there are inclusions of sand and straw.
Report on the archaeological Excavation at the settlement Novopokrovka II 2014
(V. A. Kolchenko, Ph. G. Rott)
The archaeological works at the settlement Novopokrovka II were done from 6th August to 4th September. They were focused on the Excavation II in the centre of the settlement.
Under the level, excavated 2013 (Horizon I, karachanid time), some rooms of earlier building level were found. These are rooms 10a and 21-22. The rooms 21-22 form a single area.
Photo 1. Room 10a and 21-22. A view from the North
All of them are oriented on the line North-East. They were built of mud brick and are extremely destroyed as well by the later constructions as by the later rubbish pits. Generally the remaining height of the walls does not exceed one mud brick. Stratigraphical situation in these rooms is the same: soft clayish ground with ash inclusions, animal bones, rolled stones, fragments of ceramic.
In the room 10a tandyr was excavated. Its top part does not remain. Its walls are made of burned clay with pebble. On its bottom an ash layer was found.
To the South of rooms 21-22 was room 20 (West and East) found. Its eastern wall was built of unburned mud brick (Photo).
A piece of a wall between rooms 10a and 21-22 remains. It was built of unburned mud brick (37(remaining) x 20 x 10 cm).
Photo 2. Room 20. Its eastern wall. A view from the West.
Under the described level went the earlier level. Here was excavated a complex of rooms, which form probably one building, formally called Home I. All its walls were built of unburned mud brick using complex bricklaying. It consists of at least two big rooms (24 and 25, not excavated yet), which are separated by a thick wall, also built of unburned mud yellow brick. Its foundation walls belong to the earlier building period. It has profound walls, which were used during late building activity at this area.
Photo 3. The Home I and the northern street in front of it. A view from the North
Along its northern and western walls of the Home I, where no building structures were previously recorded, the streets were found (Photo 4, see also a plan).
Photo 4. The street to the north of Home I. A view from the East
In the western wall of the Home I a bronze coin was found, of which type was not identifiable due to its bad condition (Photo 5.).
Photo 5 The coin from the western wall of Home I
The northern street went originally between two buildings – the line of the wall of another building to the North was found. This wall was also built of unburned mud brick.
Photo 6. The wall of the Home II to the North of the street. A view from the South
The area to the West from the Home I has no building structures and was formally called room 23 or western street. In the filing of this ceramic fragments were found (Photo 7.).
Photo 7. Excavation II. Ceramic nozzle of water pipe (kubur)?
The main focus of works was concentrated on a series of rubbish pits.
Rubbish pit 1/2014 is located in the central part of the excavation II. The filling is soft. In the filling were found ceramic fragments including some fragments of lids and of an eating table (dastarchan).
Rubbish pit 3/2014 is located in the north-eastern corner of the excavation II (part of this pit runs outside the excavation II), has a regular cone form. The level of this pit corresponds with the highest remaining level of this excavation. Its bottom cuts the top part of the earlier pit 14/2014 (Photo 8.). The filling is soft, clayish with ash and organic inclusions. In the filling were found big rolled stones, ceramic fragments and animal bones
Photo 8. The north-eastern corner of the excavation II. Rubbish pit 3/2014 cuts the earlier pit 14/2014
Rubbish pit 4/2014 is located at the northern border of the excavation, has a regular cone form. The filling is soft, clayish with ash and organic inclusions. In the filling were found a pieces of tandyr with scratched wavy lines on the inner surface, ceramic fragments including ones of coppers and ones of glazed pottery (white/green) and animal bones.
Rubbish pit 5/2014. The filling is dark, soft, in the southern part of pit the filling is relatively hard. In the filling were found the pieces of mud brick, ceramic fragments including a big piece of chum and animal bones. In the bottom of this rubbish pit the wall was found, which is built of mud break of yellow colour, goes on North-South line and belongs to the earlier constructions, probably to the sufa.
Rubbish pit 6/2014, its northern part slotted by the rubbish pit 2013. The filling is dark brown, soft. In the filling were found ceramic fragments and animal bones.
Rubbish pit 8/2014. The filling is soft. In the filling were found some ceramic fragments and animal bones.
Rubbish pit 9/2014 goes from the level covered by the floor of the room 10a. The filling is dark soft with organic inclusions. In the filling were found ceramic fragments including a lamp (čirag), glazed with white background which dates the complex into 11 century (Photo 9.).
Photo 9. The glazed with white background a lamp (čirag) from the rubbish pit 9/2014
Rubbish pit 10/2014 is located to the North of rubbish pit 9/2014. The filling is very hard with pieces of charcoal. In the filling were found small ceramic fragments and animal bones.
Rubbish pit 11/2014 hat a pear-shaped form. The filling is soft with organic inclusions. In the rubbish pit a bone lyre-shaped belt pendant was found.
Rubbish pit 12/2014 has a regular cone form. The filling is hard with grey layers. In the filling were found a piece of a burned brick (its thickness is 3 cm), ceramic fragments and animal bones.
Rubbish pit 13/2014. The filling in its top part is relatively hard, in the filling were found pieces of mud brick predominantly of yellow colour. The filling in its bottom is soft, in the filling were found ceramic fragments and animal bones.
Rubbish pit 14/2014 is located in the north-eastern corner of the excavation II. Its top part is slotted by the later rubbish pit 3/2014. Its south-western part is also slotted by the rubbish pit 12/2014. The filling is soft.
Rubbish pit 15/2014 is located in the southern border of the excavation. It has a regular cone form. The filling is very soft with ash layers. In the filling were found a lot of ceramic fragments, including some coppers and animal bones.
The rubbish pits form a clear structure, so it can be supposed, that their creation followed a specific pattern, so the new rubbish pit was made after the actual one was filled (Photo 10.).
Photo 10. The rubbish pits form a clear structure. View from the South
As result of works of 2014 the big building structure Home I was found, which belongs to the earlier building period. It profound walls were used during late building activity at this area. It consists of at least two big rooms. The main focus of works of 2015 will concentrate on this structure.
Archaeological excavations on the Settlement Novopokrovka II in 2015
V. Kolchenko, Ph. Rott
In 2015 the archaeological works were continued in the Excavation II in central part of the settlement. They were focused on the House I, which was found 2014. Here a series of rooms inside it was excavated (Photo 1, 2).
It was found out that the Street 1 of the strata 4 goes deeper (stratum 5-6?), and that the Street 2 of stratum 5 (of 2014) is a room in form of long corridor (Photo 3). It has sufas and tandyr-structures along its walls (see below).
The research of the Street 1 in both strata (4 and 5 (6?) brought some interesting finds (Photo 4 and 5).
Photo 4. Street 1. Bronze amulet, strata 5/6?
During 2015 19 rubbish pits and were partly or fully excavated. They belong to tree strata. The rubbish pits 2/15, 3/15, 5/15, 6/15, 17/15, as well as following ones, which were found and partly researched before (6/12 and 11/14), belong to the upper stratum 3. Following rubbish pits belong to the next stratum: 1/15, 4/15, 10/15, 16/15, 1-2/13 ?) as well as following ones, which were found and partly researched mostly 2013 (9/13, 12/13, 7/14=10/13, 13/14). Following rubbish pits belong to the lowest stratum 6/15, 7/15, 8/15, 11/15, 12/15, 13/15, 15/15, 18/15, 19/15.
Rubbish pit 3/15 is located in the room 16 as well. Its diameter – 70 cm, depth – 50 cm. The surface of the floor of the room 16 covered this pit. Its thickness – ca. 4 cm . In its northern part the wall was found, which is located on the line East-West. The pit as of a regular cylindrical form. The filling is soft, with inclusions of ash, some small fragments of ceramics and animal bones were found in the filling.
Rubbish pit 5/15 is located in the room 17, close to its north-eastern wall. Its diameter – 64 х 70 cm, depth – 47 cm. The filling is hard. Many fragments of ceramics, incl. a piece of burned brick and animal bones were found in the filling (Photo 6).
Rubbish pit 8/15 is located in the northern part of Excavation II. Its depth is 1,0 m. The filling is relatively soft. Some pieces of mud bricks and fragments of ceramics were found in the filling.
Rooms 16 and 17 belong to the stratum 4 and are located in the southern part of the Excavation II. Room 17 is located to the North of the room 16.
The southern wall of the room 16 is located outside the Excitation II. Its sizes in excavated form: 4,0 (West-East) х 2,45 (North-South) m. All its walls built of mud bricks. Its western wall is significantly destroyed by the rubbish pits 15/14(=11/13) and 13/12, its northern wall by the rubbish pits 4/09, 14/12, 12/13, its eastern wall by the rubbish pits 2/14 and 2/15. The entrance into this room was not found. It can be expected in the wall, which stays outside the Excavation II.
Along the eastern wall of this room a sufa (?) is located, which in its southern part goes to the border of Excavation II. Its side wall built of three rows of mud bricks. The colour is brown, the mortar is yellowish. The destruction of this wall in form of sinking is documented. The eastern wall of the sufa is almost completely destroyed by the rubbish pit 2/15. Only its remains were documented, their sizes are 60 х 35 cm.
The room 17 is located to the North of the room 16 and has a neighbouring wall with it. Its sizes: 3,4 (West-East) х 3,7 (North-South) m. The entrance from the Street I into this room is located probably in the northern wall along the western wall. But it is not surely clear, because this area is strongly destroyed by rubbish pits 11/14 and 17/15. There is a wide sufa along the southern wall. Its width is ca. 1,1-1,15 m. It is significantly destroyed by the rubbish pits as well.
A small part of sufa along the western wall is remained. Here the base of small tandyr 3 was found. Its diameter is ca. 50 cm, height of its walls is ca. 3-5 cm. In the filling of tandyr a miniature ceramic vessel was found (Photo 11).
The northern wall of this room had probably a sufa as well. A tandyr and a base of a corner oven were located on it. The tandyr 2 is small, its diameter is ca. 4-6 cm, its walls are almost vertical. Their height is 25 cm. The base of this tandyr is built of mud bricks/guval’a. The external surfaces of tandyr were covered with yellowish plaster, its thickness is ca. 1 cm. The bottom of tandyr was formed of fragments of hums. The sizes of tandyr base – 120 х 60 cm.
The floor in the room 17 has a small slope (3-6°) to the centre as a result of sinking.
On the floor to the East from centre an intensive burning spot (oven 1) is located. In the near of it a destroyed jug with ornaments was found. The filling of this room was clayish, relatively hard with ash inclusions. A big complex of ceramics was found inside it: fragments of jugs, handles, fragment of humča, bowls, small pan, flat caps, dastarhan (Photos 13, 14).
Stratum 5, Rooms 25 and 28
Both rooms are located under the floor of rooms 16 and 17, belonging to the stratum 4.
Room 25 is of rectangular form and is located on the line West-East (Photo 15). Its western, northern and partly eastern walls are inside the Excavation II. Its excavated sizes: 2,2 (western wall) х 4,5 (northern wall) х 2,9 (eastern wall + border) х 3,8 (southern border) m. The western wall is built of mud bricks of light clayish colour with grey mortar. It has a sufa. The width of sufa is 1,4 m. Its surface is covered with tick layer of plaster (5-8 cm) of yellow colour. Its base is correlated with level of the wall. The wall of stratum 5 built of mud bricks, stays on another cut wall of stratum 6, which built of pachsa. The last one is of yellowish colour. Between both walls there is a thin ash layer (2-3 cm) of black-grey colour.
Such stratigraphical situation allows to suppose, that that area (before the wall of stratum 5 was built) stood without any building structures for a while. During the building the room 25 upper ash layers were cut vertically and horizontally and according to this the sufa was made, the room itself went somewhat deeper.
The sufa in the north-eastern corner of this room is somewhat higher (45-50 cm). Its width is 130 (North-South) х 120 (West-East) cm. The wall of this sufa is destructed because of sinking the ground below it (filling of room of stratum 6). The whole floor has a slope to the centre. The entrance to this room went possibly from the room 28 in the North. There is another sufa along the southern wall here. Its height is 10-15 cm.
There are only some finds from this room, including some of them, coming from the filling of the sufas (Photo 17).
Room 28 is located to the North of room 25, stratigraphically under the floor of room 17. It is of quadratic form, its sizes: 4,65 (northern) х 4,25 (eastern) х 4,35 (southern) х 4,2 (western) m (Photo 18).
The height of the northern wall is 70 cm (8 rows of mud bricks). Its width is ca 60 cm. The mud bricks are of brown colour with grey mortar. The building technique of this wall is similar with the western wall of the room 25. The eastern wall, which is located on the border of Excavation II, is built of mud bricks of brown colour with grey mortar (7 rows of mud bricks). The southern wall has a sufa. Its width is 80 cm. In the southern wall along the eastern one there is an entrance. Its width is 90 cm (Photo 18). The floor has a slope to the centre.
View from the North
Finds: fragment of humča, some fragments of ceramic coppers and caps.Room 20 (Stratum 4)
The works were concentrated here on the research of the wall between rooms 20 and 24. It was the wall, which was found 2014, and it is built of pachsa. Along this was there was a sufa. The all of the sufa was built of two rows of mud bricks (47-48 cm). The level of this sufa corresponds with level of the wall. So we see here the same technique, that we documented based on the research of the western wall of the room 25 of stratum 5 – the floor of the room was made deeper, than the neighbouring surface. The width of the sufa is 1,55 m, height is 2 cm.
In the filling of this room some fragments of ceramic vessels were found.
South-western part of Excavation II: Rooms 26, 27, 29 (strata 5/6)
Room 27 is located under the floor of the room 20. Only one part of this room was excavated because its northern and eastern parts go to the border of the Excavation II and the southern and western parts are fully outside it. Its excavated sizes: 1,65 (eastern wall) х 1,8 (northern wall) х 1,34 (border West) х 2,0 (border South) m. The eastern and northern walls are built of pachsa. Their thickness is 0,9 and 1,05 m measured in their bottom part. The filling of this room is clayish, very hard.
Among the finds from this room are to mention some fragments of copper with small vertical handle, fragment of cap with decorated surface and some interesting handles of jugs.
Room 26 is located to the North of the room 27 and has a neighbouring wall with it. The western part of this room is located outside the Excavation II. Its sizes: 0,95 (northern wall) х 3,2 (eastern wall) х 1,65 (southern wall) х 3,2 (border West) m. The room was excavated only partly. The walls of the room are built of pachsa, the clay is of yellowish colour with inclusions of pieces of mud bricks. The filling is very hard, clayish (Photo 20).
A relatively big complex of ceramics was found in the filling of this room. Among them some fragments of unfired čirags (Photo 21), of small bowl, of dastarhan, base of burner, a series of handles of coppers and caps without decoration.
Room 29 is located to the East of rooms 26 and 27 and has a neighbouring long wall them (Photo 22).
Its southern part is outside the Excavation II: Its sizes 6,8 (eastern wall) х 1,55 (northern wall) х 6,4 (western wall) х 2,15 (southern border) m. Stratigraphicly it is located under the level of Street 2. There are no passages in the western and eastern directions. It is to suppose that it was an area between two Houses, which was used for housewifely needs.
There are two building levels here. The room of the upper level has a sufa 1 in the south-eastern part and of the lower level – sufa 2 in the north-eastern part as well as a tandyr belonging to the western wall of the room. The width of sufa 1 – 50-55 cm. Its documented length – 1,6 m being destroyed by the rubbish pit in its southern part. Its height – 40 cm. The external wall of the sufa is built of mud bricks of light-grey colour. In the near of sufa remains of a wooden board were documented (Photo 23).
Its length – 1,3 m. The sufa 2 belongs to the lower building level (35-40 cm lower than sufa 1). Its external wall is built of mud bricks as well. Its width – 60 cm. Its documented length – ca. 2,0 m. The height of walls of tandyr – 25-30 cm. Its diameter (bottom) – 35-40 cm. The base was built of mud bricks of light clay. In the near of tandyr a lot of burned pieces of mud bricks was found (point 1 and 2).
The filling of this room is hard. A big series of ceramic vessels was found in the filling inside this room (Photo 24, 25).
In the filling of tandyr of this room a ceramic vessel was found (Photo 26).
As result of archaeological works of 2015 the research of the strata 4 and 5 was finished. At least two following strata were documented: 6 (structures with pachsa-walls) and 7 (structures with mud bricks walls).
To stratum 4 belong rooms 16 and 17, which are located inside the structure marked in 2014 as House I. Small structures in this part of Excavation II (rooms 18 and 19 of 2014) can be now interpreted as sufas.
The House I corresponds with strata 5 and stays on the shuted structure, belonging to the strata 6. The level of walls of House I of stratum 5 correlates with level of sufas, and the floor’s level is located somewhat lower. The House I continues to exist also in the stratum 4 in the same form but with new configuration of sufas.
Rooms 20 and 21 belong to the stratum 4 in the western part of Excavation II: System of their walls correlates with those ones of the House I, but there is a difference in their construction: in one case they are built of mud bricks, in the other one – of pachsa.
Under the level of rooms 20 and 21 two following rooms were found: 26 and 27, which form House III. Their walls built of pachsa. So we now know that House I and House II belong the different strata. Between these ones there was a free area. Here there was a room 29, which belongs to the stratum 5.
Street 1 continues to exist also in the strata 5, but somewhat narrow.
Eight coins were found (see Attachment) in 2015. Two of them are Chinese coins Kai Yuan Tun Bao, other ones – so called Türgesh coins (Soghdian coins of Semirečye). Two of last ones were found in the stratum 5, on the street 1. Other ones come from the rooms and Street 1 of the stratum 4. All these data allow dating the excavated strata to time not earlier than 8 century, and in correlation with ceramic – to the end of 8-9 century.
Plan 1. Stratum 5
Plan 2. Stratum 4
Plan 3 . General view
Plan 4. Rubbish pits
on the excavations on the site Novopokrovskoe II in 2016
V. Kol'chenko, F. Rott
In 2016 the Novopokrovskiy archeological group of the Institute of History and Heritage of the National Academy of Sciences, with the support of the Society for the Exploration of EurAsia, Switzerland, continued the excavations of the medieval site Novopokrovskoe II. The work was done in Excavation I (small additional studies) and Excavation II.
In Excavation I we continued researching square 4 (5 x 5 m) in the north-west corner. The upper strata were studied here. In the uppermost layer the walls of the room 27 were identified, under it 2 smaller rooms 29 and 30 were opened. They were fully investigated and documented. Their walls were removed; and under them room 31 was found. It occupies almost fully the square 4 (Pic. 1).
square 3 to the south was also researched: here the earlier layers were studied
(Horizons A3-B1). Under the walls of the previously excavated room 22, room 28
was identified (Pic. 2). Its western mud brick wall goes in the border of the
A series of seven rubbish pits was found 2016. Most of them contain animal bones and ceramic finds (Pic. 3).
In excavation II the layers of the Horizon B were further studied. The constructions of room 25, which was excavated in 2015, were removed. And under them two new rooms 30 and 35 were opened. To the north of them the structures of room 28 (excavated 2015 as well) were studied. Under it the room 31 was documented. Three floor levels with associated sufas and other constructions were found here. Along the western border of the Excavation II under the room 26 and 27 (both of 2015) new rooms 33 and 34 were opened (Pic. 4).
In the area to the west of the House I, which was marked as a Street 2, incl. room 29/2015, the lower layer was researched. Here the new room 32 was documented.
House I is located in the south-eastern part of Excavation II. To the west of it there are street 2 (opened 2014) as well as rooms 29 (2015) and 32 (2016), to the north there is street 1. House I consists of two rooms 25 and 28. 2016 the excavations were continued here. The following rooms were found after removing the floors of the mentioned rooms: 30 and 35 and 31 to the north of them. In the last one three levels of sufas were documented. They go along the southern wall of the room. On the floor of room 25, closely to the eastern wall, there is a tandyr. Its sizes: 54-58 cm. Its height is 23 cm. Its walls are intensively burned. Inside the tandyr three fragments of a ceramic П-formed oven-stand were found. The room under the floor of room 25 was marked as room 30. It occupies practically the same area as a room 25.
In this room there were sufas along the northern, western and eastern walls. Their height is four mud bricks or 40-45 cm. The southern wall is located outside Excavation II. Anyway, no remains of the sufa along this wall were documented. The mud bricks of the eastern sufa are brown, their remained sizes here are following: 25 х 9 cm, 26 х 9,5 cm, 15 х 10 cm, 18 х 8 cm. The upper layer of the western sufa is grey, sizes: 20 х 9 cm, und lower ones are brown with sizes: 16 х 8 cm, 26 х 9 cm and 21 х 10 cm. The width of the eastern sufa is 80 cm, of the western sufa 97 cm.
The sufa 3 is made of mud bricks of grey colour. Their remained sizes: 21 х 7 cm, 23 х 8 cm, 23 х 6 cm. The wall of sufa has a slope inwards because of sag in the centre of the room. The eastern wall of the room is covered with a plaster of a good quality of yellow colour.
Between those sufas, closely to the western sufa, a floor oven was documented (Pic. 5). Its base is of one mud brick height, it is covered with a plaster. All surfaces of the base are covered with two layers of a plaster. The plaster is clayish, of yellow colour, the thickness of each layer is 2-3 cm.
The area between both sufas was filled with mud bricks and afterwards the floor was made. The mud bricks are of yellow colour. Their remained sizes: 20 х 10 cm, 28 х 10 cm, 24 х 9 cm, 28 х 8 cm.
Under the level of room 30 there is another room 35 (Pic. 7). The southern and eastern walls of this room are outside Excavation II. The filling is soft, in the under-floor layer a lot of organic remains in form of green lenses.
In the northern wall there is a passage into room 31 (Pic. 8).
Along the western, eastern and northern walls there are sufas. All of them as well as a floor are covered with a plaster. 2016 the sufas were not dismantled, so their construction remained not clear.
In the north-eastern corner of the room the mud brick block was documented. Its sizes: 137 х 60-80 cm. The mud bricks inside the block lie obliquely (Pic. 9).
The northern wall of the room 35 consists of mud bricks of following sizes: 9-9,5-10 cm, ? х 20 х 10 cm, 37 х 20 х 10 cm, 47 х 24 х 9 cm. Some of mud bricks have however another size: ? х 22 х 6,5 cm.
The area under the floor of the room 28 is marked as a room 31 (Pic. 11).
Beginning from the western part of the entrance from the south from the rooms 30/35, which goes along the eastern wall, there are remains of a sufa. The height of its walls is 2-3-layers of the mud bricks of light-brown colour. The sizes of the mud bricks: 24 х 23,5 х 8,5-9 cm and 23 х 23 х 9,5 cm in the upper layer and 40 х 22 х 8,5-9 cm and 20 х 22 х 8,5 cm in the lower layer. The thickness of the mortar is ca. 1 cm. The external wall is covered with one layer of plaster (0,2-0,3 cm). The bricks of the sufa are put to the southern wall not closely but lie on the small goaf (up to 7 cm). Under the lower bricks there is a thin layer of ash (sufa 3). The sufa 2 covered the sufa 3. It is made of mud bricks of brown colour put on thin mortar of the dark colour (Pic. 12).
In 2016 the street 1 was researched. Two layers of stones were documented here (Pic. 13, 14), which correspond with two building periods/renovations of the area here. The upper layer consists of relatively big stones (its width is 0,95-1,2 m); the lower one consists of shingles. The surfaces of the street themselves are done of clay, immediately along the wall of the House I almost no stones were documented. So there is a strip of clay here, which is free of stones.
In the surfaces of both levels of the street ceramic pieces and animal bones are incorporated.
The traces of horizontal (10-12 cm) and vertical (6-8 cm) wooden poles were documented. We suppose that due to these poles the street was enhanced and repaired (Pic. 15). Unfortunately the system of those poles is remained too poor, which does not allow any reconstructions.
Apart from ceramic pieces and animal bones,
the fragment of a bronze bracelet was found on
the surface of the steet (Pic. 16). Only one third of
it is remained. It is round in shape. It does not allow any conclusions, because
the typology of such bracelets does not exist
for the region and it is a single find.
Six rubbish pits were found here. They contain mostly ceramic fragments (Pic. 17-18) and animal bones.
Pic. 17. Street 1. Fragment of ceramic vessel.
The rubbish pit 6/2016, as we could documented, dropped from the level of the sufa 2. It is round, has a porous filling, including organic remains and ash. In the filling there are animal bones, some ceramic fragments, mostly hand made as well as mud bricks of brown colour.
At the Excavation II the layer which was researched in 2016 belongs, according to the relative stratigraphy, to the IX century.
The finds of Türgesh coins (and of so called Türgesh type) on the surface of the street (Pic. 19) allow to date it not earlier than the VIII century.
The archaeological researches done in 2016 provided us with new data regarding to the stratigraphy and planigraphy and brought new finds, including some ceramic vessels which were so far unknown in the Chu Valley. An important point is the study of the structure of the street, which is also unusual for the mentioned region. Such profound and complicated structured street was rather unexpected for such a small settlement. The complete analysis of the street and the layers under it and under the House I will be done 2017.
16th March, 2017